A plague doctor was a medical physician hired by city halls to treat inhabitants affected by the disease during 17th-19th centuries.
Some plague doctors wore a special costume, invented by Charles de Lorme in 17th century, the physician of three French kings: Henri IV, Louis XIII and Louis XIV (Le Roi Soleil).
The suit consisted from a bird-like mask with spectacles, and a long leather or waxed-canvas gown, which covered the doctor from neck to ankle. The suit, as well as the gloves, leggings, boots and the hat were impregnated with fragrance extracted from spices and herbs, similar to the one used for the beak mask.
The mask had round eye-holes, covered with clear glass and a bird shaped like beak, and was attached to the face with straps. It was a sort of respirator, with nose holes designed for breathing. The beak could contain dried flowers (roses), herbs (mint), spices (cloves, camphor).
Plague doctors would also carry a cane to examine patients without the need to make direct contact with them.
At the time doctors thought that the herbs would chase away the miasma, aka the "evil" smells of the plague, and thus protect them from the disease.
The largest plague epidemic was the Black Death in Europe, in the 14th century. Because it had it struck so destructively (between 30% to 60% of Europe's population died during the pandemic) and affected everyone, from kings to poor, from old to child, it remained ingrained in our culture as a memento mori. Among famous plague doctor who gave medical advice to be used against the plague were Nostradamus and Paracelsus.
Since the Black Death, the Plague Doctor Costume is associated with death, as a sign that plague is near.
One of the most known works of art showcasing this concept of inevitability of death is La Danse Macabre or the Dance of Death. It consists of an allegory of Death leading a a group of dancing figures to the grave (usually an emperor, king, pope, monk, peasant, child, all as skeletons). The dance reminded people of how fragile their lives were and how vain the glories of earthly life.
It is not surprising that during this difficult times we travel with corona virus pandemic, we are sensitive to the image of a plague doctor mask, as our subconscious brings up memories ingrained in our deepest fears.
Should you want to relive those memories, you can buy this plague doctor mask.
Here’s another interesting tidbit: WHY the shape of a beak for the mask? Because they observed that the birds did not get sick or die from the plague. Animals & people died…not the birds. They reasoned it had to do with their beak / so the design mimicked the bird beak & then they stuffed it with aromatic herbs & spices. 👍